Wednesday, August 29, 2012

The Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies in Plants by Visual Symptoms

by Thomas Wallace, M.C., D.Sc., A.I.C.
University of Bristol Agricultural and Horticulture Research Station, Long Ashton, Bristol

London — Published by His Majesty's Stationary Office — 1943 — Crown Copyright Reserved —


 Cauliflower Plant --- Magnesium Deficiency 
Older leaves highly tinted in intervenal areas;
cream chlorotic marbling and orange, red and purple tints.
During the past two years, the Agricultural Research Council has been concerned in coordinated investigations at a number of Agricultural Research Institutes, University Departments, and Advisory Centers, designed to increase our knowledge of the frequency and importance of abnormalities in crop development caused by deficiencies of those minerals, particularly trace elements, that are essential for normal plant growth, and of the methods by which such deficiencies may most effectively be remedied.
In these investigations, the diagnosis of specific deficiencies by changes in the appearance of the leaves has played an important part. Dr. Wallace, whose studies in this field are widely known, has collected a valuable series of color photographs, showing the appearances characteristic of different deficiencies in a wide range of horticultural and agricultural crops commonly grown in this country. It seemed to the Council that they would be performing a useful service, not only to research workers, but also to agricultural advisory officers, to practical farmers, to fruit growers and to gardeners, by making this collection easily available to all who might be interested in a subject that has gained additional importance during the war, as a result of bringing into cultivation large areas of land on which no crops had previously been grown for many years. Attention may be called to the method, devised by Dr. Wallace, of diagnosing particular deficiencies from the changes produced in a selected series of indicator plants. The Council would wish to express to Dr. Wallace their thanks for placing at their disposal the collection of photographs from which these illustrations have been prepared, and for writing the explanatory text. Agricultural Research Council,
6a, Dean's Yard,
London, S.W. 1
March, 1943


This Book has been written primarily for the use of technical officers and advisers concerned with problems of crop production, and for progressive farmers, vegetable growers and fruit growers, but it is thought that it will not be without interest and of use to the large body of the general public who are interested in gardening in peace time and to whom the growing of food crops has become of vital importance during the war.
It is hoped that the book will meet an important war-time need which has been felt by many technical officers who have had to deal with new and difficult problems of crop failures since the outbreak of war, for which quick solutions have been required. The war has brought many new cropping problems to the agricultural community, which is only to be expected, considering that several million acres of grassland, embracing a great variety of soils, have been brought under the plough during the course of four seasons and that crops have been introduced into districts with little or no previous experience of their suitability to local conditions of soil and climate. Manurial deficiencies, new both to technical officers and farmers, have been revealed: lime deficiency in potatoes; magnesium deficiency in cereals, potatoes and Brassica crops; manganese deficiency in oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, sugar beet, mangolds, swedes and turnips; boron deficiency in sugar beet, mangolds and Brassica crops; and iron deficiency in cereals. All these deficiencies were known to plant nutrition experts before the war, but their occurrence in this country was generally regarded as only of local importance or merely of academic interest. The ploughing-up program and the intensity of the present crop production drive have greatly increased the importance of these little-known deficiencies, and also the need for recognizing quickly deficiencies of the more familiar nutrients, nitrogen, potash and phosphate. The present book describes a method of recognizing by sight deficiency symptoms of the various plant nutrients in commonly grown agricultural and horticultural crops. Where the method can be used it provides the quickest means of determining the causes of failures due to mineral deficiencies, and it will often enable a full crop to be harvested with little expenditure of time, materials and labor, where otherwise complete failures might result. This is especially true where trace elements, such as manganese, boron and iron, are concerned and where the deficiencies are recognized at an early stage. The most important feature of the book is the production in color of the various deficiency symptoms shown by important crops and it is hoped that it will serve as a color atlas for their recognition. The photographs have all been collected during the war and for this reason the series in the present edition is in some respects incomplete. Attention, however, has been specially given to the most urgent and difficult problems of war-time production and the omissions can easily be added if a future edition is called for. The illustrations which are omitted concern nitrogen deficiency, the symptoms of which are familiar to farmers, and deficiencies of sulfur, copper and zinc, which are not known as practical problems in crop production in Great Britain. Flax is not included in the illustrations, tie to lack of opportunity of studying this important war-time crop. In using the book, it is suggested that it may often be most profitable for farmers and others engaged in the actual growing of crops to give most attention to the color plates. The main purpose of the text is to provide a suitable basis for those who wish to study the subject beyond the point of the mere recognition of the deficiency symptoms in the individual plants, and to help in this a bibliography of scientific papers etc. relating to the subjects discussed is appended to each chapter. Chapter V, describing the use of the visual method in the field, including the laying out of field trials, should be of special use for technical officers and advisers. The production of the book would not have been possible without the help of many colleagues. In particular, grateful acknowledgement is made to Messrs. L. Ogilvie, J. 0. Jones, H. E. Croxall, D. A. Osmond, W. Plant, E. H. Hobbis and W. H. Neild, of Long Ashton Research Station, who have assisted in the collection of material for the photographs; to various Advisory Chemists, among whom should be mentioned Mr. W, Morley Davies, Harper Adams Agricultural College, who have been specially interested in deficiencies of trace elements; and to numerous county officers who have brought to the notice of the writer many instances of unusual mineral deficiencies. Mr. G. H. Jones, photographer, Long Ashton Research Station, has been responsible for all the original photographs used in the illustrations. Warmest thanks are due to him for the long hours he has spent on the work and for the skill and energy he has shown in carrying out the important and onerous tasks assigned to him. Thanks are also due to Professor E. J. Salisbury F.R.S. for valuable suggestions during the preparation of the text, and for checking the original MS. and proofs.

Essential Points in the Nutrition of Plants


The processes concerned in the growth of plants are the subjects of study by plant physiologists and plant biochemists. A comprehensive account of these processes is outside the scope of the present work, the special object of which is to deal with the outward and visible signs of imperfections in the plant's activities caused by faulty mineral nutrition. Nevertheless it is useful to have before us the general features of the main processes involved and to realize that the symptoms we shall be discussing later have a physiological basis, and are not direct and unchangeable signs of the specific deficiencies but result from the derangement of the complicated mechanism of the plant's vital activities. The main processes involved in plant development may be summarized as follows:
Absorption: Intake of water and mineral elements by the root system. Carbon assimilation or photosynthesis: Intake of carbon dioxide from the air by the leaves, and reaction of the gas with water in the leaf in the presence of the green chlorophyll to form sugar and free oxygen. Formation of protoplasm: Protoplasm is the living material of the plant, consisting mainly of proteins, complex compounds of nitrogen built up by the plant from more simple compounds of this element. Respiration: The combination of oxygen with various food substances synthesized by the plant, especially sugars, whereby energy is produced. Transpiration: Loss of water from the plant, mainly from the leaves. Translocation: The movement of materials within the plant. Storage: Storage of reserve products in various organs and tissues.
During growth there are continuous processes of building up of complex compounds of carbon and nitrogen and breaking down of these into more simple substances, in which water and oxygen are intimately concerned. These processes together comprise plant metabolism. In the course of the metabolic processes innumerable substances are formed, such as sugars, starch, cellulose, acids, lignin, tannins, amino acids, proteins, amides etc., and many plants also produce special products, as for instance nicotine in the tobacco plant. For the normal functioning of the above processes there must be an adequate intake of water by the plant to maintain the plant cells in a more or less turgid condition and, since water is being continuously lost at a varying rate from the plant, intake and movement within the plant tissues must be capable of ready adjustment to these changes. As a result of metabolic activities plants develop special organs of growth and reproduction, each of which has its special characters and makes particular demands on the nutrient supplies of the plant. With all plants there are well defined seasonal growth cycles. Thus annuals, such as cereals, begin from the seed, give rise to seedlings, which later flower, form grain and ripen off, whilst perennial deciduous trees, such as apples, pears, etc., begin growth in the spring, using stored reserves of food, form leaves, make shoots, blossom and form fruits and subsequently shed their leaves, but meanwhile pass on reserve foods to various storage organs in preparation for the next season's growth. Coincident with these growth cycles there are well defined chemical cycles of nutrient elements and elaborated products in the leaves, stems and roots, etc. It will be shown later that these cycles are of great importance in considering p-deficiency effects and in diagnosing their causes.


Nutritional problems must be considered in relation to all the conditions in which plants live, and not merely in terms of the amounts of plant nutrients contained in or added to the soil. For example, those who are accustomed to growing plants know that the temperature must not be too low or no growth may result or that if too high the plants may be injured. An optimum temperature is usually recognized and this may vary according as to whether the plant is young or old. Similarly the importance of light is well known and plants may be put in special positions to obtain a maximum supply of light at one stage and may be shaded at another.
The actual duration of the daily period of illumination also affect growth and there are plants which are classified as requiring "long day" conditions to complete their growth cycles and others as needing "short day" conditions. If the special "long" or "short" day periods are not forthcoming for the respective classes of plants requiring these, their growth cycles are abnormal and they may fail entirely to produce flowers, grain or fruit. The humidity of the atmosphere, as distinct from the water supply in the soil, is of importance in determining the water conditions within the plant, as these are dependent on both water intake by the roots and water loss from the leaves, the latter being largely influenced by the air humidity. Even the presence of adequate quantities of plant nutrients in the soil is no guarantee that they will be absorbed by the plant roots. It will be shown later how these may be present in forms which are not available to the plants, but even when they would be considered as being present in suitable forms for absorption, other factors may prevent this taking place. An example of this latter condition is afforded in poorly aerated soils where lack of oxygen near the roots may prevent them from actively absorbing mineral nutrients The problems of such influences in the plant environment as those just mentioned are complicated by the fact that they do not act independently, but their effects are modified by one another. Thus the effects of light intensity or period of daylight may vary with different temperature conditions. The requirements of plants for different nutrients may be affected by conditions of light, temperature and water supply, and by other factors of the general environment. Thus the need for nitrogen may be less under conditions of relatively low light intensity whereas the need for potash in these circumstances may be greater, these facts being of importance in growing tomatoes under glass. The effect of nitrogen in relation to light may be shown by growing a plant under normal light conditions with insufficient nitrogen, when the leaves will show the well known symptoms of nitrogen deficiency-pale green, yellow, orange and red tints. If such a plant be then shaded, the leaves will turn a darker green and growth may be visibly increased. It can be shown that the lowered light conditions result in an increase of "soluble" a breaking down of proteins, thereby rendering the nitrogen of these available for growth processes. This interrelationship of environmental factors is well illustrated by an experiment on apple trees at Long Ashton. Bramley's Seedling trees were grown in compost in large pots and given a small dressing of a nitrogenous fertilizer. Some of the trees were grown in a specially constructed glass house and an equal number in an adjoining wire enclosure. The trees in the enclosure showed severe symptoms of nitrogen deficiency-pale green and yellow leaves, reddish brown barks and highly colored, red fruits. The condition was corrected by further dressings of nitrogen. In contrast, the trees under glass, where the light was of less intensity and the temperature higher, made vigorous growth, carried large, green leaves and bore large, green fruits. Iron and zinc deficiency symptoms may be less severe under conditions of low light intensity, whilst boron deficiency effects are less severe and magnesium deficiency effects are more pronounced in wet seasons than in dry ones. The rate of water absorption is less at lower temperatures than at higher ones and efficient intake is also dependent on good aeration. These facts may result in a water deficit within plants growing in cold, wet soils when the air temperature is high. Soil conditions greatly complicate the problems of nutrient supplies to crops and are discussed in some detail in Chapter II. The raw materials needed for plant growth consist of carbon dioxide, which is obtained from the atmosphere through the stomata of the leaves, and water and the so-called mineral nutrients, which normally enter the plant through the medium of the roots. The importance of water and carbon dioxide in the nutrition of plants will be apparent from the facts that water often comprises 80 to 90 % of the total weight of growing plants, and carbon and oxygen together may account for over 80% of their dry matter, i.e., the solid matter remaining after water is removed. As against these large amounts, the mineral nutrients, as measured by the ash content of the plants, i.e., the mineral residue obtained when the organic matter is destroyed by heat, often contribute from 5 to 15% of the dry matter. It has been shown in recent years that certain organic compounds, known as "growth promoting substances" or "hormones", which occur in plants, and some of which are also present in soils and natural manures, are capable of producing marked growth responses, such as increased root growth, shoot and leaf curvatures, stimulation or suppression of buds, increased fruit setting, prevention of fruit abscission etc. They appear to perform important functions in the growth of plants. Examples of substances of this kind which can produce growth responses are 13 indole-acetic acid, 13 indole-butyric acid, phenyl acetic acid, A, naphthalene-acetamide, vitamin B1 It is not at present clear to what extent growth substances are absorbed by plants from soils, although it has been shown that vitamin B1, which occurs naturally in soils, can be obtained in this way.


It has been shown in numerous researches that certain elements are necessary for the healthy growth of plants. They are sometimes spoken of as essential elements and, since some are needed in relatively large quantities and others in very small amounts, the former are referred to as "major" elements and the latter as "minor" or "trace" elements, or as micro nutrients.
The terms "major" and "minor" do not refer to the relative importance of the functions of the elements in plant growth, and for this reason the term "trace" element is preferable for the latter class.
Major elements: Nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfur. Trace elements: Iron, manganese, boron, copper, zinc and molybdenum.
( Iron occupies an intermediate position and is usually included in the major elements group. In dealing with field problems it is more convenient to group it with the trace elements.)
In addition, there are, other elements, such as sodium, chlorine and silicon, which produce beneficial effects on the growth of certain plants but which have not so far been shown to be absolutely essential to growth. The element aluminum is of general occurrence in plants, but seems to be without direct nutritional value, although aluminum sulfate is used, because of its acidifying properties, to change the color of hydrangeas growing on alkaline soils from pink to blue, and aluminum may also exert indirect influences on nutritional processes. Other elements often occur in plants but they are not known to serve any useful function and frequently they act as plant poisons or toxins. The nutrient elements can only be absorbed by plants when present in certain forms: nitrogen from nitrates and ammonium salts; phosphorus from phosphates; calcium, magnesium and potassium from their salts (e.g., as sulfates or chlorides, etc.); sulfur from sulfates; iron from ferrous or ferric salts (more readily from ferrous salts); manganese from manganous salts; boron from borates; copper and zinc from their salts, and molybdenum from molybdates. There may appear to be certain exceptions to this statement in practice. For instance, nitrogen may be applied to a soil as "organic" nitrogen, as in hoof meal or urea, and sulfur may be added as the element itself, as in flowers of sulfur, ground sulfur, etc. In such conditions the added materials are, however, converted into the nitrate and sulfate forms respectively by soil organisms before being absorbed by the plants. Further points of importance in connection with the absorption of the mineral nutrients by plants are as follows:
(a) They must be absorbed from relatively dilute solutions or the plants will be! injured or even killed. (b) Certain of the elements slow down the absorption of others into the plant, e.g., calcium slows down potassium and vice versa. The phenomenon is known as "antagonism". (c) Healthy plants result when the nutrients are absorbed in certain relative proportions. When the proportions are suitable the nutrient medium is said to be "balanced". When ratios between nutrients are too wide, deficiency conditions are created. Thus if a high proportion of nitrogen to potassium is absorbed, the plant will suffer from potassium deficiency. (d) Nutrients, even though present in the nutrient solution in satisfactory amounts and proportions, may not be absorbed by the plant unless the "reaction" of the solution as regards acidity and alkalinity is satisfactory. The reaction is measured in terms of the pH scale, which is merely a convenient notation for stating the conditions of acidity in the solution (strength or intensity of acidity, not total amount). The neutral point (i.e., when acidity and alkalinity are equal and neutralize the effect of each other) is represented by pH 7.0; below this value the solution is acid and above it is alkaline. Many crop plants prefer a reaction slightly on the acid side-pH 6.0 to 6.5 and extreme values are in the neighborhood of 4.0 on the acid side and 9.0 on the alkaline side. (e) The nutrient medium must contain an adequate supply of oxygen, i.e., aeration must be satisfactory.


Knowledge of the main functions of the mineral nutrients is useful in helping us to understand the effects produced by deficiencies of any one of them.


Nitrogen. Nitrogen is a major constituent of several of the most important substances, which occur in plants. It is of outstanding importance among the essential elements in that nitrogen compounds comprise from 40 to 50% of the dry matter of protoplasm, the living substance of plant cells. For this reason nitrogen is required in relatively large quantities in connection with all growth processes in plants. It follows directly from this that without an adequate supply of nitrogen appreciable growth cannot take place and that plants must remain stunted and relatively undeveloped when nitrogen is deficient. Proteins, which are of great importance in many plant organs, e.g., seeds, are compounds of nitrogen whilst chlorophyll, the green coloring matter of the leaves, also contains the element. From this latter fact it will be apparent that when nitrogen is deficient leaves will contain relatively little chlorophyll, and will thus tend to be pale green in color. In addition to the above substances, numerous other organic compounds of importance in plants, such as amino acids, amides, and alkaloids, are compounds of nitrogen. Certain compounds of nitrogen are very mobile in plants, and this enables them readily to mobilize supplies of the element at vital growing points and to transfer stored supplies to points where they are most required. Such transference is common from old tissues to young growing points when supplies of the element are short. This mobility and re-utilization of nitrogen explains why deficiency symptoms of the element always appear first in the older parts of plants and why growing points are the last to be affected. Phosphorus: This element, like nitrogen, is closely concerned with the vital growth processes in plants as it is a constituent of nucleic acid, and nuclei in which this occurs are essential parts of all living cells. Hence a deficiency of this element will also be expected to result in greatly restricted growth. Phosphorus is also of importance in seeds and in connection with the metabolism of fats. Compounds of phosphorus are concerned with the processes of respiration and with the efficient functioning and utilization of nitrogen. This relationship to nitrogen probably accounts for the fact that several of the symptoms of phosphorus deficiency are identical or similar to those which result from a deficiency of nitrogen, Phosphorus is also of special importance in the processes concerned in root development and the ripening of seeds and fruits. Calcium: Calcium occurs in plants chiefly in the leaves and the amounts present in seeds and fruits are relatively low. One of its main functions is as a constituent of the cell wall, the middle lamella of which consists largely of calcium pectate. This function appears to be of fundamental importance since, if calcium is replaced by any other of the essential elements, such as magnesium or potassium, the organic materials and mineral salts in the cells are readily leached through the walls. Other functions attributed to calcium are as follows: It provides a base for the neutralization of organic acids; it is concerned with activities of growing points (meristems), especially with root tips; it may be of importance in nitrogen absorption. Although a large proportion of the calcium contained in the plant may be soluble in water-as much as 60% in cabbage calcium does not appear to move freely from the older to the younger parts of plants, and hence young tissues contain lower proportions of calcium than older ones. This may explain why calcium deficiency effects begin at the tips of shoots. Magnesium: The outstanding fact about magnesium is that it is a constituent of chlorophyll, and is essential to the formation of this pigment. As a result, when magnesium is deficient, one of the symptoms commonly shown by plants is chlorosis. Magnesium is also regarded as a carrier of phosphorus in the plant, particularly in connection with the formation of seeds of high oil content, which contain the compound lecithin. The element seems to be very mobile within the plant, and when deficient is apparently transferred from older to younger tissues where it can be re-utilized in the growth processes. This agrees with the observation that signs of magnesium deficiency invariably make their appearance first on the oldest leaves and progress systematically from them towards the youngest ones. Potassium: Unlike all the other major elements, potassium does not enter into the composition of any of the important plant constituents, such as proteins, chlorophyll, fats and carbohydrates, concerned in plant metabolism. For this reason its role is more difficult to determine, and in spite of much study it cannot be said that the functions of potassium are clearly understood. The element is present in all parts of plants in large or fairly large proportions. It seems to be of special importance in leaves and at growing points, as these are especially rich in potassium. Probably the whole of the potassium in plants is present in soluble form, and most of it seems to be contained in the cell sap and cytoplasm. It is outstanding among the nutrient elements for its mobility and solubility within the plant tissues, and these properties no doubt account for the ready way in which potassium can be re-utilized by young tissues when the element is in short supply. Among the functions which have been attributed to potassium and the processes with which it may be concerned, the following may be mentioned: The formation of carbohydrates and proteins; the regulation of water conditions within the plant cell and of water loss by transpiration; as a catalyst and condensing agent of complex substances; as an accelerator of enzyme action (e.g., for diastase); as contributing to photosynthesis through its radioactive properties. It has been shown in many instances that the potassium content of plants is frequently much higher than is necessary for healthy growth, and it is generally considered that luxury (i.e., unnecessary) absorption of potassium often takes place. The great mobility of potassium in plants, its special importance for and its reutilization by young tissues, and its apparent functions as a regulator of plant processes on a large scale are in harmony with the observations that, when potassium is moderately deficient, the effects are seen first in the older tissues and progress from these towards the growing points, but, when the deficiency is acute, growing points are severely affected, and die-back and general collapse of the plants commonly occur. Sulfur: Sulfur occurs in plants as a constituent of proteins (e.g., cystine), and of certain volatile compounds such as mustard oil. It seems to be connected with chlorophyll formation, although it is not a constituent of this substance. Its functions in connection with proteins and chlorophyll doubtless account for the similarity of its deficiency effects to those due to deficiency of nitrogen.


Iron: Iron is closely concerned with chlorophyll formation but is not a constituent of it. Its role appears in this connection to be that of a catalyst. As a result of this function of iron, chlorosis is invariably an outstanding symptom when the element is deficient. Iron may also act as a catalyst, in the role of an oxygen carrier, in respiration. A point of great importance in connection with iron is its relative immobility in plant tissues. Its mobility seems to be affected by several factors, such as the presence of manganese, potassium deficiency and high light intensity. There is evidence that the amount of chlorophyll is related to "active" (i.e., readily soluble) iron in plants. It will thus be seen that so-called iron deficiency in the plant may in fact usually mean iron immobility. Lack of mobility may also account for the fact that iron deficiency is first shown in the younger tissues. Manganese: The functions of manganese are regarded as being closely associated with those of iron and as being concerned with chlorophyll formation. Hence, when manganese is deficient, chlorosis is a common symptom. Manganese may decrease the solubility of iron by oxidation and hence, an abundance of manganese within the plant may lead to iron deficiency and chlorosis. Manganese is regarded as having the functions of a catalyst; its activities being specially concerned with oxidation and reduction reactions within the plant tissues. Boron: The exact role of boron is not known, but again the evidence as for the other trace elements, suggests that, its functions are those of a catalyst or reaction regulator. Particular effects attributed to boron are as follows: It can delay the onset of calcium deficiency effects but cannot replace calcium; it tends to keep calcium soluble; it may act as a regulator of potassium/calcium ratios, and of the absorption of nitrogen; it may be concerned with the oxidation-reduction equilibrium in cells. Such functions as the above accord with the results which follow from a deficiency of the element, when growth processes show sudden collapse and drastic derangements of metabolism occur. Zinc and Copper: Although specific functions have not been determined for these elements, here again the evidence points to their roles as catalysts and regulators. Deficiencies of both are associated with chlorosis and a serious general collapse of vital growth processes. Since catalysts are not used up in the chemical reactions which they promote, we can understand how it comes about that quite small or even minute quantities of the "trace elements", iron, manganese, boron, zinc and copper, may nevertheless be essential to the plant's health and growth.


Sodium: As sodium is not strictly an essential element it cannot be expected to have a specific role in the metabolic activities of plants. Where sodium produces significant effects it is often regarded as a conserver of potassium and as being able partly to replace that element in its role. In no instance, however, has it been shown that sodium can wholly replace potassium where the latter is acutely deficient. In such circumstances, sodium is ineffective as a substitute for potassium, even for sodium-loving plants, such as sugar beet, mangold and barley. Sodium seems to affect the water relations of plants and often enables sugar beet and other crops to withstand drought conditions which would otherwise produce severe adverse effects. Chlorine: The evidence of the role of chlorine in plants is somewhat contradictory, and no general statement can be made. In tobacco it has been shown to increase the water content of the tissues and to affect carbohydrate metabolism, leading to an accumulation of starch in the leaves. The element is present in plants as chloride, and is wholly soluble.


Toxic effects in plants may be produced both by essential nutrient elements and non-essential elements. In the first class, the major nutrients are much less toxic than the trace elements. Indeed, for the major nutrients, there exists a fair safety margin for excess or "luxury" consumption, but for the trace elements the margin is very narrow. Similar conditions exist in relation to non-essential elements thus some plants will tolerate fairly large amounts of elements such as sodium or chlorine, but are injured by relatively small amounts of elements like arsenic or chromium. Two types of injury may occur: ( 1 ) An excess of one element may lead to a deficiency of another which ultimately results in a deranged metabolism, e.g., excess nitrogen or excess phosphorus may result in insufficient potassium and excess potassium may lead to deficiency of magnesium or calcium. This type of injury applies particularly to essential nutrients. ( 2 ) The presence of an element may directly injure the protoplasm and bring about the speedy death of the plant.


When plants are grown in unsuitable environments, including conditions of faulty mineral nutrition, they react to the particular defects in more or less specific ways. Thus, if light is insufficient, the green coloring matter of the leaf will be lacking and the leaves may be almost white (chlorotic), and the plant may be very spindly and "drawn" in appearance; if the temperature is too high, the growth may be rank and soft; if water is insufficient, growth may be restricted, the tissues woody and the green of the leaves show a bluish tint. Again, deficiencies and excesses of the individual elements produce characteristic effects on various organs of plants: foliage characters, including color, density, size and shape of leaves; stem characters, such as thickness, color and length of inter-nodes; root characters, such as color, amount of fiber, abnormal thickening; blossom characters, including amount and time of opening of the flowers; fruit characters, such as size, color, hardness and flavor. Ability to recognize these particular effects forms the basis of the visual method of diagnosing plant deficiencies. Many of them can be readily learned and applied by practical farmers. Indeed, for many years progressive fruit growers in this country have used the leaf symptoms of deficiencies of nitrogen and potassium, and more lately of magnesium, as the main guide to manuring their fruit trees and bushes with these elements. Detailed descriptions of deficiency symptoms and of the methods of using them in the field for diagnosing the manurial needs of crops are given in Chapters IV and V.


(1) Bewley, W.F., and White, H.L (1926). Some Nutritional Disorders of the Tomato. Ann. Appl. Biol. 13, 323. (2) Blackman, G. E., and Templeman, W. G. (1938, 1940). The Interaction of Light Intensity and Nitrogen Supply in the Growth and Metabolism of Grasses and Clover (Trifolium repens) — I, II, IV. Ann. Bot. New Series 2, 257, 765; 4, 533. (3) Burkholder, P. R. (1936). The Role of Light in the Life of Plants. I and II. Bot. Rev. 2, 1, 97. (4) Garner, W. W. (1937). Recent Work on Photoperiodism. Bot. Rev. 3, 359. (5) Gregory, F. G. (1936). The Effect of Length of Day on the Flowering of Plants. Scient. Hort., 4, 143. (6) Hoagland, D. R. (1937). Some Aspects of the Salt Nutrition of Higher Plants. Bot. Rev. 3, 307. (7) Hoagland, D. R., and Arnon, D. 1. (1941). Physiological Aspects of Availability of Nutrients for Plant Growth, Soil Sc. 51, 431. (8) Hoffer, G. N. (1938). Potash in Plant Metabolism. Deficiency Symptoms as Indicators of the Role of Potassium. Indust. and Engin. Chem., 30, 885. (9) Lundegirth, H. (1935). The Influence of the Soil upon the Growth of the Plant. Soil Sc. 40, 89. (10) Murneek, A. E. (1941). Vitamin B, versus Organic Matter for Plant Growth. Plant Amer.S.Hort. Sc. 38, 715. (11) Nicol, H. (1938). Plant Growth Substances. Published by Leonard Hill, Ltd., London. (12) Salisbury, E. J. (1937). The Plant and its Water Supply. I, II. J. R. Hort. Soc., 62, 425, 473. (13) Thomas, M. (1937). Plant Hormones and their Possible Importance in Horticulture. Scient. Hort., 5, 141. (14) Thompson, H. C. (1940, 1941). Effect of Temperature and Length of Day on Growth of Vegetables. Minnesota Hort. 68, 163. (Also Hort. Abs., 11, 22). (15) Tincker, M. A. H. (1938). Photoperiodism and Horticultural Practice. Scient. Hort., 6, 133.
Chapter II — Soils in Relation to the Supply of Mineral Nutrients

Crop Index for Mineral Deficiency Photos

Crop Index for Mineral Deficiency Photos

  • Flax
  • Hops
  • Kale
  • Lettuce
  • Maize
  • Mangold
  • Oats
  • Onion
  • Parsnip
  • Pear
  • Peas
  • Plum
  • Potatoes
  • Radish
  • Rape
  • Rye
  • Spinach
  • Sugar Beet
  • Swede
  • Table Beets      
  • Tomatoes
  • Turnips
  • Wheat
  • Color Pictures of Mineral Deficiencies in Kale

    Color Pictures of Mineral Deficiencies in Kale

    from The Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies in Plants by Visual Symptoms
    by Thomas Wallace, M.C., D.Sc., A.I.C. Published by His Majesty's Stationary Office — 1943 — Crown Copyright Reserved —
    KALE IN SAND CULTURE — from the 1951 edition
    Kale Plant (Marrow Stem) - Phosphorus deficiency  080. Kale Plant (Marrow Stem) 
    Phosphorus deficiency Growth thin and upright; older leaves purple and reddish purple tints.
    Kale Plant (Marrow Stem) - Calcium deficiency 081. Kale Plant (Marrow Stem)
    Calcium deficiency Death of growing point and severe collapse of leaf tissues.
    Kale Plant (Marrow Stem) - Magnesium deficiency 082. Kale Plant (Marrow Stem)
    Magnesium deficiency Older leaves striking chlorotic marbling (cf. Plate No. 084, and Plate No. 085).
    Kale Plant (Marrow Stem) - Potassium deficiency 083. Kale Plant (Marrow Stem)
    Potassium deficiency Growth squat; leaves bluish green, slight chlorosis near margins; margins scorched and turned sharply forward.
    Kale Plant (Marrow Stem) - Iron deficiency 084. Kale Plant (Marrow Stem)
    Iron deficiency Leaves chlorotic mottling (cf. Plate No. 082, and Plate No. 085).
    Kale Plant (Marrow Stem) - Manganese deficiency 085. Kale Plant (Marrow Stem)
    Manganese deficiency Leaves chlorotic mottling (cf. Plate No. 082, and Plate No. 084).
    Kale Plant (Marrow Stem) - Manganese toxicity (soil acidity complex) 086. Kale Plant (Marrow Stem)
    Manganese toxicity (soil acidity complex) Leaves cupped, margins incurled, irregular and ragged and show brown necrotic spots; chlorotic mottling especially near margins.
    Kale Stem (Marrow Stem) - Boron deficiency 087. Kale Stem (Marrow Stem)
    Boron deficiency Longitudinal section. Lesions in pith.
    Kale Stem (Marrow Stem) - Boron deficiency 088. Kale Stem (Marrow Stem)
    Boron deficiency Longitudinal and transverse sections. Pith lesions due to boron deficiency and rotting due to Bacillus Carotovorus.
    Kale Leaf (Marrow Stem) - Boron deficiency 089. Kale Leaf (Marrow Stem)
    Boron deficiency Marginal mottling and necrosis (cf. Plate No. 093)
    Kale (Hungry Gap) - Calcium deficiency 090. Kale (Hungry Gap)
    Calcium deficiency Hooking and death of young leaves; general collapse of leaf tissues.
    Kale (Hungry Gap) - Boron deficiency 091. Kale (Hungry Gap)
    Boron deficiency Death of growing point; corky petioles (cf. Plate No. 057)
    Kale Stem (Hungry Gap) - Boron deficiency 092. Kale Stem (Hungry Gap)
    Boron deficiency Longitudinal section. Lesions in pith.
    Kale Leaves (Hungry Gap) - Boron deficiency 093. Kale Leaves (Hungry Gap)
    Boron deficiency Marginal mottling and necrosis (cf. Plate No. 089).
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      Chelation Therapy

      Table of Contents

      What is Arteriosclerosis and How is it Treated?
      When we are born our arteries are basically free of obstructions and have a high degree of elasticity. They expand and contract with each pump of the heart; the blood with its life carrying nutrients and oxygen is carried to every cell and every tissue of the body. There is a tremendous amount of chemical activity going on constantly in the cells that line these vessels. If the enzyme systems, which operate in these arterial cell membranes, become blocked by heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, or aluminum, or by deposits of calcium in the membrane, the rate of chemical activity slows down. Fatty materials such as cholesterol begin to bind with the calcium atoms. This is the beginning of what is called a "plaque". This process is known to start in infancy. "Fatty streaks" have been seen in the arteries of infants during autopsies. It progresses insidiously. Autopsies done on young American men killed in the Korean and Viet Nam wars revealed 80 percent of these men, whose average age was about 21, had significant arteriosclerotic occlusive disease. In many cases, there was a 50 to 75 percent blockage of one or more of their coronary arteries. The lack of symptoms, until there is a 75-90% occlusion of a given artery, often makes this a most deadly process with sudden death frequently being the first symptom. Depending on the location of the occlusion, the result of a total blockage is known as a heart attack, stroke, or arterial occlusion in the leg (see Figure 1). Total occlusions necessitate attempts to reestablish blood flow through by-pass procedures.

      Figure 1
      Locations of common sites of arterial obstructive disease.
      Before total obstructions occur attempts are often made to widen the diameter of arteries or prevent clotting through the use of various drugs. While both drug measures and operations may temporarily improve circulation, they often only postpone the inevitable, total blockage of the artery. Drugs and surgery generally have no effect on the disease process itself. Studies have shown that the use of a vegetarian diet along with an exercise program can halt the progression of plaque formation in arteries and in some cases actually reverse the obstructions.1 The approach used at Waters Preventive Medical Center includes the dietary — and exercise — oriented approach above in addition to a nutritional supplement program and intravenous infusions of vitamins, minerals and a chelating agent known as E.D.T.A. (Ethylene diamine tetraacetric acid).
      What is Chelation Therapy?
      The word "Chelation" comes from the Greek word "chele" which means a claw of a crab or lobster and implies a strong, pincer-like grasping. In the case of Chelation Therapy, the grasping is done by a chelating agent and the object grasped is a metal atom. This chelating agent forms a very stable chemical complex with a mineral or metal ion known as a "heterocyclic ring structure." There are many examples of chelates in nature such as magnesium in the chlorophyll molecule in plants, iron in the hemoglobin of blood cells in man and other higher organisms and the incorporation of cobalt in the vitamin B-12 molecule. There are many "Chelating Agents" in nature such as vitamin C, sulphur-containing amino acids and many enzymes. Unless some of the enzymes contain a firmly bound metal atom they will not be active or have a decrease in their activity. Even the usual drugs used in medical practice in the treatment of disease are often dependent upon Chelation processes for their action. A new science has emerged which deals with the subject of Chelation and is know as Complexion or Bioinorganic Chemistry.2 The basis of this field is the inorganic chemical principles contained in and well explained by Ligand Field Theory. This theory deals with the mechanisms by which organic chemicals form three-dimensionally stable structures with metal ions through sharing of electrons. The resultant compounds are very stable and will only break apart with difficulty. A review of the science underlying Chelation Therapy may be found in a treatise by Bruce W. Halstead, M.D.3 The principles, which are the basis of Complexion Chemistry or Ligand Field Theory, are among the most fundamental in nature. In view of the array of nature's applications the exploitation of these principles and concepts in the treatment of human disease is not only logical but also predictable. In short, Chelation is a process whereby the metals are held and positioned by body chemicals so as to facilitate chemical reactions, which are essential to life. Chelation Therapy is the introduction of naturally occurring or synthetic organic chemicals into the human body in order to facilitate chemical reactions, which lead to the discharge of poisonous metals from the body and the rearrangement of essential metals in the body for the promotion of life's chemical reactions.
      History of Development of E.D.T.A. and its Medical Usage
      In the 1930s German chemists were searching for a compound which would bind calcium and other metals in order to prevent staining of printed-pattern linens with calcium from hard waters. This basic research was being carried on independently in the United States by Frederick Bersworth who after much trial and error with different compounds finally patented E.D.T.A. In the late 1950s Dr. Clarke at Providence Hospital in Detroit in collaboration with Martin Rubin, PhD., Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at Georgetown University, began using E.D.T.A. intravenously to remove lead from people who had been poisoned in the automotive and other industries. He noted that indeed people with high lead levels in the circulation and their tissues began to excrete large amounts of lead in the urine after the administration of E.D.T.A. and began to feel better when the lead burden was removed. Coincidentally, the older patients who had arteriosclerosis involving the brain, heart, and peripheral vessels began to experience an improvement of their symptoms related to arteriosclerosis. There was an improvement in their angina, exercise tolerance and in their symptoms of Cerebrovascular insufficiency.4-7 A number of American physicians who had been given no hope by their own M.D.s for various circulatory conditions began to undergo Chelation Therapy in Dr. Clarke's office. They usually improved and then went back to their own towns and began giving this treatment to their own patients.
      What is Chelation Therapy Used For?
      Chelation Therapy is used as the primary treatment for heavy metal intoxication by lead, cadmium, aluminum, mercury, arsenic, and even iron.8-10 At this time, it is also used to treat occlusive vascular diseases in conjunction with diet, nutritional supplements, and lifestyle changes. Because Chelation Therapy appears to improve circulation and reduce toxic chemical reactions in the body, it has also been used successfully for arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, and eye diseases such as macular degeneration.11-18
      Can Chelation Be Used as a Preventive Measure?
      It is often a good idea to undergo a series of Chelation treatments and maintenance therapy to prevent or delay the onset of vascular disease and the aging process. This is especially important if there is a strong family history of these types of problems. Dr. Steven Davies of London, England has shown that heavy metals accumulate in human tissues throughout life and we can assume these poisons have deleterious effects on our health. Evidence from a Swiss study indicated a reduced cancer incidence in patients who were chelated preventively.19
      How Does Chelation Work?
      Numerous theories have been erected to explain the obvious benefits of Chelation Therapy. The following is a list of possible mechanisms, all of which have been partially proven by research studies. 1) Heavy metals such as Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Arsenic, Nickel, and Antimony have been shown to relentlessly accumulate in human tissue over a lifetime. Aluminum has been implicated as a possible factor in the causation of Alzheimer's disease. These poisonous metals disrupt the normal biochemical processes. They insinuate themselves into the active sites of enzymes thereby altering such enzymes' activities, and they initiate "free radical reactions," which produce noxious chemicals that damage cellular structures such as proteins, cell membranes and DNA. The results at the level of the whole organism are the development of degenerative diseases-arteriosclerosis, arthritis and cancers. The removal of these poison metals with Chelation Therapy is probably a major mechanism by which Chelation normalizes biochemical activity thereby improving circulation and energy. 2) Essential metals such as iron, copper, manganese, and zinc are rearranged in the various body compartments resulting in improved enzyme activity at the cellular level. 3) Calcium deposits are removed from vessels and intracellular membranes leading to increased blood flow and better functioning of the enzyme systems imbedded in those membranes. The result is, again, improved organ function, vitality and energy level. 4) The blood clotting elements known as platelets are made less sticky, reducing clots in the vessels and leading to improved circulation and reduction in the thromboses that occur during heart attacks and strokes. 5) E.D.T.A. binds trace elements like iron, which are known initiators of "free radical reactions". These free radical reactions are thought to be the chemical origin of arteriosclerosis, cancer, and inflammations. In general, they are thought to be the cause of aging and its concomitant degenerative processes. With respect to #3 above, realize that a slight increase in the internal diameter of an occluded vessel results in a large increase in blood flow through that artery. In fact, doubling the vessel's diameter results in a 16 to 32–fold increase in blood flow. If even a 10% increase in diameter occurs, there is still 1 l/2 to 3 times the blood flow. Therefore, a vessel doesn't need to be completely unclogged in order for the patient to experience a reduction in his symptoms.

      Figure 2
      A small increase in the diameter of an obstructed artery
      results in a large increase in blood flow throught that artery.
      The positive effects of E.D.T.A. Chelation Therapy are probably dependent both on decreasing the blood vessel occlusion and on the cellular and subcellular level effects of this agent. There are also probably many other unknown mechanisms.
      Have Scientific Studies Shown That Chelation Therapy Is Effective?
      If you call the American Medical Association or ask your cardiologist if Chelation Therapy can help arteriosclerosis chances are they will report that no studies have been done to document effectiveness of this treatment. In fact, studies proving effectiveness of E.D.T.A. in removing calcium deposits from tissues and reducing chest pain in heart patients date back to the 1960s.22-40 Unfortunately, in the early years excessive doses of E.D.T.A. were used and adverse reactions followed. No nutritional support was given during therapy at that time and treatments were given on a daily basis, five or six days per week. As a result of the publication of a very few reports of poor results with Chelation the interest in treatment waned for a time. However, because of the dramatic improvement in so many patients, doctors continued to give the Therapy. By the beginning of the 1970s, a professional organization of Chelation therapists was founded known today as The American College for Advancement in Medicine. Doctors from that group began to publish their findings. H. Richard Casdorph, M.D., PhD. Published two articles in 1981. The first one documented an increase in left heart function immediately after a Chelation treatment using a radionuclide scan. The second study, again using a nuclear scan for measurements, revealed a highly significant increase in blood flow to the brain in a group of 15 patients after an average of 20 Chelation treatments.23 All 15 patients also had improvement in their symptoms. A study done by Drs. McDonagh, Rudolph and Cheraskin in 1982 revealed a definite increase in blood flow to the brain using measurements of blood flow to the eyes.25 This study helps us to understand why Chelation Therapy often improves vision. These authors did two more studies in 198226 and 198327 showing improvement in kidney function using Chelation Therapy. This is contrary to the often-repeated claim by opponents of Chelation Therapy, that E.D.T.A. is dangerous to the kidneys. As long as the treatment is given slowly and in the recommended dosage even patients with moderate kidney dysfunction can be helped. Drs. Casdorph and Farr published a report in 1983 of four patients with gangrene of the lower extremities who were treated with Chelation Therapy, nutritional supplements and hyperbaric oxygen.28 All four patients had been told to undergo amputations by other doctors and sought an alternative in E.D.T.A. Chelation. All four patients were successful in avoiding amputation and follow up more than a year later revealed all patients to be doing well and free of pain in their legs. McDonagh et al published another study in 198529 on 77 elderly patients with documented occlusive vascular disease of the lower extremities. After 60 days of treatment, Doppler Ultrasound blood pressure measurements revealed a highly significant improvement in blood flow to the feet. Studies by Dr. Van der Schaar in Holland and Dr. Kindness here in the U.S. were reported at the third International Chelation Conference at Georgetown University in Washington D.C. in July 1989.30 Both studies revealed that E.D.T.A. infusion changes the "stickiness" of clotting factors in the blood known as platelets. This then results in a decrease in clot formation. Clot formation is thought to be the mechanism of various inflammatory disorders as well as heart attacks and strokes. Dr. Van der Schaar was a busy cardiovascular surgeon until 1985 when he began to experiment with Chelation Therapy. He has Chelated thousands of patients and only rarely does bypass surgery anymore. Brazilian doctor, G.P. Deucher, published an article in 1987 documenting increased discharge of heavy metals such as iron in the urine after infusion of E.D.T.A. This finding correlated with a decrease in cardiovascular symptoms. In 1985, I published a study done with Drs. John Bederka and Simca Brudno revealing large increases in aluminum output in the urine after infusion of E.D.T.A.31 Many researchers believe that accumulation of aluminum in the brain may be at least partially responsible for premature senility (Alzheimer's disease). In 1989, Efrain Olszewer, M.D. and James P. Carter, M.D., DrPh published a retrospective study of 2,870 patients who had undergone Chelation Therapy in Brazil. Patient response was evaluated by Doppler blood flow studies, EEG, motor and sensory tests, cognitive evaluation and memory tests. Overall, 68.8% of the patients had a "marked improvement", while 20.4% had a "good improvement" as defined in the study. This represented an overall improvement of 91.2%. Patients with heart or peripheral vessel disease fared better than those with carotid or cerebro-vascular obstruction.34 Drs. Rudolph and McDonagh treated 31 patients with Chelation Therapy for arteriosclerosis of the carotid arteries and published their results in 1991. Evaluation of the degree of obstruction in the subjects' carotid vessels was performed before and after 30 infusions of E.D.T.A. using a Doppler ultrasound scanner. Overall intra-arterial obstruction decreased an average of 21%. This was highly statistically significant at p35
      A study of 470 patients in Denmark was published in 1993 by Drs. C. Hancke and K. Flytlie. In this study 80 to 91% improvement was documented depending on the measurement used. Of special interest: 92 of these patients had been initially referred for surgery (27 for leg amputations and 65 for coronary bypass) but after undergoing Chelation Therapy only 10 of this group had to undergo surgery. (Only 3 had amputations and 7 went to bypass surgery.) This saved 24 legs, 58 open-chest surgeries and $3,000,000 of insurance money in Denmark.36 In 1994, Drs. Rudolph, Samuels, and McDonagh reported a dramatic improvement in a 59-year-old woman's visual fields after 30 Chelation treatments. This patient had been diagnosed with Map-Dot-Fingerprint dystrophy, a form of macular degeneration. Concomitantly her visual acuity was restored to normal after the treatments and 1-year follow-up revealed no relapse.37 Even studies that purport to prove that Chelation Therapy isn't effective, when carefully analyzed, reveal the efficacy of E.D.T.A. The study of Van Rij showed that 60% of patients with very severe peripheral vascular disease in fact improved after 20 infusions of E.D.T.A. And, in this study, the E.D.T.A. group was compared to a "placebo" group that in fact received thiamine, vitamin C and magnesium. This was not in fact a placebo and only serves to prove that the vitamins and minerals we routinely add to the Chelation solution in fact are also efficacious in improving circulation!38 Dr. H.J. Holliday, a vascular surgeon, published a case study in 1996 of a patient with recurrent carotid stenosis after an endarterectomy operation that he then chelated with E.D.T.A. This patient presented with an 80-85% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery and underwent an operation to remove the plaque. However, 2 years later the obstruction recurred to 65-70% and in 6 more months it had progressed to 70-75% again. The patient elected to undergo chelation therapy instead of another operation and after 20 chelation treatments the stenosis was reduced to 60-65% with a concomitant decrease in peak velocities with Doppler indicating an improvement in the hemodynamics at the site of obstruction. Dr. Holliday concluded that "E.D.T.A. chelation provides an exciting approach ... that reduces the degree of blockage".39 Dr. Majid Ali and his associates published a study in which 26 consecutive patients with ischemic heart disease who had failed to respond to various combinations of by-pass surgery, angioplasty and multiple drug therapies were treated with 20 or more infusions of E.D.T.A. Some of these patients were assessed with Thallium Myocardial Perfusion Scans before and after their treatments. Of the 6 patients who underwent these scans 5 showed definite improvement in myocardial perfusion (more blood flowing to the heart muscle in areas previously lacking such flow). Overall clinical improvement as judged by relief of symptoms was as follows: 61% excellent, 17% good, 13% moderate and 9% poor. This is obviously far better results than can be expected from a placebo effect and there was no mortality (death) during the course of the study.40 The question is always raised by patients and doctors alike: will Chelation Therapy unblock obstructed arteries? While there is no definitive proof at this time that is acceptable to the FDA, there are studies, which are highly suggestive that Chelation can do this. Drs. Rudolph and McDonagh treated a man with severe hypertension with a blockage to his left renal (kidney) artery. The patient underwent Chelation Therapy as an alternative to surgery. After 70 treatments there was a dramatic reduction of obstruction in the artery from 60-70% down to about 20% and his blood pressure normalized.45 The American College for Advancement in Medicine is working with doctors and hospitals worldwide to sponsor studies to document E.D.T.A. Chelation therapy as a viable treatment for arteriosclerosis and other diseases of aging. In time we believe E.D.T.A. Chelation Therapy will become an accepted, "standard" procedure in the practice of medicine. NOTE: Individuals wishing to obtain a compendium of scientific articles on E.D.T.A. Chelation therapy may obtain the following volume from the publisher. A Textbook on E.D.T.A. Chelation edited by E.M. Cranton. Forward by Linus Pauling, Ph.D. Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Volume 2: l/2, Spring/Summer 1989. Published by Human Sciences Press, Inc., 233 Spring Street, New York, New York, 10013–1578.   1-212-620-8473. One can also access more information about and literature related to E.D.T.A. Chelation Therapy via the website of ACAM at
      How is Chelation Therapy Given?
      The Chelation agent, E.D.T.A. is administered intravenously in a solution of dilute salt water or in sterile water. Besides the E.D.T.A., the following substances are added to the bottle: Vitamin C — This vitamin acts as an antioxidant and is needed to activate enzymes and assist in connective tissue synthesis and turnover. Magnesium Sulfate — This mineral is added to counteract the effects of low calcium induced by E.D.T.A. and to replace magnesium, which is almost always deficient in the diet and in total body stores. Magnesium is needed to operate most enzyme systems and in particular, to improve heart function. B-Complex Vitamins — These vitamins act as cofactors in all energy transformations in the body. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) — This vitamin is needed for most biochemical steps in amino acid metabolism, especially in the processing of the cardiotoxic substance known as homocysteine. Some theories of atherosclerosis hold that abnormal elevations of homocysteine initiate vascular disorders. Hydroxycobalamin (Vitamin B12 — Cyanocobalamin) — This vitamin is needed for brain function, blood formation and in the synthesis of genetic material. Procaine — This substance is added to inhibit burning at the site of infusion. Heparin — This substance is added to prevent vein inflammation. In addition, other materials such as trace minerals may be added in individual cases. The I.V. needle is placed in a hand or arm vein and the solution is infused over a 2–4 hour period depending on how it is tolerated. The patient will sit in a recliner chair during the treatment and may read, watch television, or just relax.
      Are There Any Side Effects?
      Side effects may be divided into "short term" and "long term". The "short term" effects occur during and within a day or two after the treatments. They may be divided into the five categories listed below: 1) Because E.D.T.A. is an acid, burning may occur at the site of the infusion. This can be alleviated by slowing down the infusion rate or adding more magnesium or procaine. 2) Dizziness, muscle spasm, and numbness of the hands, feet, or around the face may occur due to lowering of calcium. These are normal effects of lowering the blood calcium in some patients. These symptoms are easily corrected by slowing the infusion rate, adding extra magnesium, potassium, or calcium to the I.V. and are not in any way dangerous. 3) Some patients report symptoms of fatigue, dizziness, and slight nausea caused by the lowering of their blood sugar level. These symptoms can be avoided by eating a good meal before treatment. Patients are encouraged to bring snacks with them. Diabetic patients are most susceptible to this glucose imbalance and will often have to lower their insulin dosage during a course of treatment. 4) As with all detoxification treatments, symptoms such as joint pain, headaches, fatigue, and flu-like feeling may occur or become worse initially. In almost all cases, these side effects disappear after a few treatments. 5) Rarely a true allergy may occur to E.D.T.A. or one of the other components of the infusion leading to sneezing, nasal congestions, dizziness, or skin rash. By removing one or more of the ingredients from the bottle, we are able to eliminate these reactions in most cases. Allergy to the actual chelation agent E.D.T.A. is almost unknown. Long term "side effects" or reactions to Chelation Therapy include the following: 1) The most serious complication of Chelation Therapy is kidney damage. We evaluate kidney function before and periodically during the treatments. If any diminished function is found before treatment, we use smaller doses of E.D.T.A. or treat less frequently. Rarely, kidney function will be so poor that we have to recommend no Chelation. If kidney function appears to deteriorate during a course of treatment we also reduce the dose or frequency. Occasionally, it is necessary to interrupt the treatment for a while. Despite the risks to kidney function, the fact is, almost no patients experience damage to their kidneys as a result of Chelation and in fact, most patients with mild reduction of kidney function will improve during their Chelation Therapy. In thousands of infusions we have given, we have never seen permanent kidney damage result from Chelation Therapy. On the contrary, we have seen improvements in kidney function when the Chelation was administered prudently. 2) Like every drug, some of the E.D.T.A. is cleared through the liver. We measure liver function before and during treatment. We have never had a case of liver damage during therapy. If a patient comes in with cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis we may have to treat very slowly or not at all. 3) The most common long term adverse reaction to E.D. T.A. is the depletion of the essential metallic elements such as zinc, iron and manganese. This can result in fatigue, anemia, rashes, and allergic tendencies. These effects rarely occur because you will be prescribed mineral replacement therapy both to correct deficiencies and keep up with losses due to Chelation. In 1999, Dr. Richard Anderson of the Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Agriculture published an article based on research he did with me on patients treated at Waters Preventive Medical Center. We found that E.D.T.A. does not result in any net loss of copper or chromium. Prior to our study, because of in vitro (in test tubes and not in a biological system) experiments it was thought that the removal of copper and chromium would be effected by E.D.T.A. Chelation. We still usually ask patients to supplement with these essential elements because there is much evidence that they are deficient in a large segment of the adult population. In 2001, Dr. Anderson and I published a follow-up study on some of my Chelation Therapy patients. In this study we documented that the average patient excreted seven (7) times the cadmium and forty (40) times the lead after as compared to before a chelation treatment. At the same time, the average patient retained over 80% of the magnesium added to the EDTA solution. The removal of poisonous metals such as cadmium and lead as well as the increased cardiovascular functioning produced a substantial increase in general health. Finally, as this booklet goes to the printer, we are happy to report that the National Institutes of Health has announced the funding of a $29 million study on the treatment of coronary heart disease with EDTA Chelation Therapy. This study will be centered at the Miami Heart Institute and will be supervised by Cardiologist Gervasio Lamas, M.D. It will involve EDTA treatment of 2300 heart patients comparing EDTA to placebo. After 40 years of trying, we will finally get a U.S. Government sponsored study of Chelation Therapy that could lead to general acceptance of this treatment.47 NOTE:   IT IS IMPORTANT NOT TO TAKE MINERALS THE DAY OF YOUR CHELATION TREATMENT. Both short term and long term side effects can be evaluated by ongoing laboratory follow-up testing.
      "Good" Side Effects
      Improvements in metabolism and circulation often result in changes, which can appear to be "reactions" or "side effects". These include improvement in vision, which results in the current optical prescription needing a change, as well as, the need to decrease insulin requirements in diabetics.
      How Many Treatments Are Needed?
      This varies from case to case. Some medical doctors who began practicing Chelation medicine 15 years ago have themselves undergone as many as 500 treatments over the years. We recommend an initial course of 30 treatments at no more than twice weekly. Most of our patients take one treatment per week. After the initial course of 30 treatments, maintenance therapy is usually recommended. Recent studies in Holland have shown that the positive side effects on blood platelets lasts for about three weeks after an E.D.T.A. infusion. We generally recommend a treatment every three or four weeks after the initial series. In severe cases the initial series may extend far beyond 30 treatments and appropriate maintenance may be one treatment every two weeks.
      Will Chelation Therapy Work By Itself?
      You will only get a maximum response to your I.V. Chelation treatments if you do the following five things:
      1. Stop smoking.
      2. Change your dietary habits.
      3. Reduce stress
      4. Take your nutritional supplements as required.

      Diet and Lifestyle
      It is obvious to auto mechanics and farmers alike that the energy that is supplied to an engine, a field of corn or a dairy cow is the most important force in determining the efficiency and performance of any system — mechanical or biological. Should this important concept hold any less true for human beings? Of course not. Week by week more scientific articles are published supporting the idea that nutritional imbalances are at the heart of diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, arthritis, and other "diseases of aging". Our aim is to get people back to eating real foods: vegetables, unprocessed meats, whole grains, raw nuts, seeds and fresh fruits. These have been the human diet for thousands of years. The middlemen food processors are actually a recent invention and claim to make our lives easier. In fact, they rob us of our health with their convenience foods and have helped create an enormously expensive medical industry. Americans eat far too much sugar. There has been a lot of press about the "French Paradox," which is the fact that the French are leaner and have less heart disease than we do despite their eating large amounts of cheese, pastries and heavy wine consumption. Indeed, some researchers claim that the reduced cardiovascular mortality is a direct result of their wine consumption. Both the alcohol in the wine and the red pigments occurring in it have been claimed to be at the root of their decreased mortality. But, what very few write about is the French take in only about 15 pounds of sugar per year per capita, while Americans consume 10 times that! Which works out to be 150 pounds of sugar annually! Remember that every sugar molecule you consume that isn't converted to energy is stored as fat and thereby contributes to the American epidemics of obesity, diabetes and vascular disease. Another difference between the French, and indeed the "Mediterranean Diet", and our diet generally is our lower consumption of vegetables. We all need to eat more green, yellow and orange vegetables. They are low in calories, high in vitamins, minerals and fiber and loaded with the health-protecting pigments of nature known as Bioflavonoids. Diet should not be a highly confusing topic but rather should be based on common sense. We should be eating a diet of whole foods-fresh vegetables, fruits, unprocessed nuts and seeds, eggs, fish and lean meats. Unlike the Eskimo, our generally sedentary life-styles don't require large does of high-energy fats, so do trim the fat off your meat and try to eat the leanest cuts.
      In regard to fat — NOT ALL FATS ARE CREATED EQUAL!   Eskimos have virtually a 100% animal-product diet. They eat raw fat almost daily. Why don't they get clogged arteries and heart attacks? The type of fat they eat is protective against the arteriosclerosis process. These fats are known as Omega-3 oils and are found in nature in fish, game animals and plant material grown in cold, northern climates — walnuts, flax, and oats grown in northern regions. ( Canola Oil  [Short for "Canadian Oil"]   Warning — Rapeseed oil is poisonous to living things and is an excellent insect repellent. It is used for transmission fluid, engine oil and engine oil additives.   "Tommy Talk Radio" Seqment ) The other major group of fatty acids is known as the Omega 6 family. These oily substances are found in vegetable oils from corn, safflower, sunflower, soybean and other seeds. The last major family includes olive oil components and is called the Omega 9 group. It is the balance between these various fatty acids in our diet that ultimately has much to do with our health. Every membrane of every cell of our body is made of millions of molecules of fatty acids. The structural integrity and biological functions of our cell membranes are dependent on the exact combinations of these fatty acid components. Basically we in the western world are eating a far higher percentage of Omega 6 oils vs. Omega 3 oils in comparison to our ancestral diet or even our diet of a century ago. The ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3 in the modern diet is about 11:l. The ideal ratio and the ratio seen in "primitive" cultures where degenerative diseases are much more rare is in the realm of 1:l to 4:l .42 We are clearly feeding ourselves a deranged ratio of building blocks and we believe this has led to an increase in skin diseases, mental diseases, allergies, arteriosclerosis, arthritis and cancer.43 From a practical standpoint, people that consume a large amount of olive oil in their diet have a significant reduction in the rate of cancer and heart disease. In fact, the longest living people on the globe are the Greeks. Their diet contains about 37% of its calories as fats — but these are almost all Omega 9 oils from olives and Omega 3 oils from seafood. They also eat a large amount and variety of vegetables and freshly picked greens — many of the latter which we consider weeds! These include lambs quarters, pigweed, dandelion greens and purslane. The Greeks also eat lots of fresh fruit, legumes and large amounts of the cardio-protective vegetables garlic and onions. They eat meat products sparingly. Despite all the theories of biomedical scientists about what we should eat, I believe we should judge medical theories with "outcome analysis". If you want to live a long health life, eat like a Greek. There is one more area concerning fats that must be discussed at this point — hydrogenated vegetable oils and margarine. These chemically processed oils have been introduced into our diet only this century. They were created by the oil processing industry to increase the shelf life of vegetable oils and have been sold to the public as a "heart protective" food. This is one of the greatest fabrications ever perpetuated on the public — and sadly it was done with the support of the medical profession. Of course, the only information claiming health benefits for margarine and other partially hydrogenated oil products was found on the television set and other media. There is no scientific evidence for any health benefits for hydrogenated vegetable oil. On the other hand, there is a large body of scientific literature dating back to at least 1956 that these products are dangerous to health.44 In fact; at the time of this writing in early 2000 there is a movement by scientists inside and outside the government to require labeling margarine and other processed oils as a causative agent of heart disease and myocardial infarction! The reason why hydrogenated oils are dangerous to biological systems is they contain, as a side effect of hydrogenation, substances known as "trans-fatty acids". These fatty acids differ in their properties from the naturally occurring fats found in cold-pressed, unprocessed seed oils. These trans-oils alter the normal structure of our cell membranes and "gum-up" the enzymatic machinery that metabolizes fatty acids. This also leads to alterations in the very important hormones known as prostaglandins. These hormones are made and destroyed almost instantly from the fatty acids in all of our cell membranes. However, they have profound effects on inflammatory reactions, cellular immunity, vascular constriction and dilatation and cholesterol metabolism, among many other functions. In summary, a health promoting diet is based on fresh vegetables, fruits, and lean animal products including eggs, raw seeds and nuts and whole grain products. One should carefully avoid using the typical vegetable oils found in grocery stores. Instead, look for oils that clearly state that they are "cold-pressed" and specifically indicate they contain "no hydrogenated fats" or "no trans fatty acids". For cooking, olive oil is probably best, as it has been shown to be "heart healthy".
      Human beings were meant to do some physical activity on a daily basis. Exercise should be considered a nutrient — or at least an essential factor for good health. It has recently been shown that even 3 hours of an activity such as walking every week will give one 75% of the potential health benefits of exercise. Even if you are very debilitated, any physical movement will result in a dramatic improvement in your well-being. Short walks of l/4 to l/2 mile are a good start. Gradually increase this as you become more fit. Use shopping malls in the winter months or even the barn aisle if you have one. Another option for exercise is small "rebounders". These are miniature trampolines and can be purchased in sporting goods or variety stores. If you feel too unsteady bounding on your feet, just sit on the rebounder and bounce up and down on your rear end. You will be surprised at how this gets your heart rate up and gets you breathing more deeply. All forms of exercise cause more life-giving oxygen to be delivered to your tissues. During exercise natural chelating agents such as lactic acid are produced and many have toxic metal binding effects that lead to discharge of these poisons from the body. Exercise has also been proven to initiate the formation of new blood vessels in the heart and other muscles of the body. This is the process of angioneogenesis and leads to collateral circulation around obstructed vascular sites. In a real sense this represents a self-induced "bypass" procedure. The bottom line is that more blood is delivered downstream to the site beyond the plaques and the tissue thus supplied is revitalized and brought back to health! The old phrase "use it or lose it" couldn't be more true from a medical standpoint. Please start some form of exercise today — it is just as important as diet, Supplements and chelation therapy and acts synergistically with them to effect improvements in health.
      "Stress" is another area that we all need to deal with. It is now known that all forms of stress may slow the speed of recovery from illness. Stressors may increase the need for vitamins and other nutrients. This results from both increased requirements and increased loss of the elements in the urine. Thus, identifying the sources of stress and reducing the impact can speed wellness! Most people think of stress as due to the job, family and other psychosocial forces. While these are certainly important components in stress causing factors, other environmental factors include the food we eat, exposure to pollutants in the air and work environment, artificial materials used in rugs, wallpaper, etc., additives to our foods and beverages, electromagnetic waves emanating from TV sets, computers and other electronic devices, financial pressures, lack of rewarding experiences in our work and play, addictive behavior patterns and persistent attitudes and beliefs which do not serve us well and are often acquired during our formative years. Here again, quiet walks are helpful, meditation, Yoga and simply regular episodes of deep breathing are very effective. Living one day at a time and being thankful for all we have can reduce stress and produce a positive mental outlook. In some cases consultation with a therapist is needed to help us understand ourselves and change our ways of thinking and being.
      Sleep and water are both major parts of diet and lifestyle. Few of us get enough of either. Our gland system recharges at night, so if we don't get enough sleep, we won't have balanced glad function. This is vitally important because the hormones secreted by our thyroid, adrenals and sex glands regulate our genetic material, which in turn is the program and system for manufacturing our body proteins and all other biochemical components of our tissues.
      We are bombarded with multitudinous recommendations regarding what we should eat. I have tried to address this question from the standpoint of how the question is dealt with in the natural world. What do people drink in "primitive" hunter-gatherer cultures? What do animals in the wild drink? The answer is simple:   Water!   Nothing more. There are no soda-pop factories or breweries in the rain forests of New Guinea or South America. Yes, people prepare herbal beverages but mainly for specific medicinal purposes. The fact is our taste for fluids has been distorted by the use of soda pop, caffeinated beverages and alcohol. This fact was brought home hard on a medical doctor named F. Batmanghelidj when he was thrown into jail by the fundamentalist regime that had taken over Iran in 1979. While in prison where he was deprived of all fluids except water for his own use, and where, as a prison doctor as well, there was a shortage of pharmaceutical medication necessitating his use of water for conditions such as peptic ulcer attacks, he discovered the healing power of water.46 In his book "YOUR BODY'S MANY CRIES FOR WATER", Dr. Batmanghelidj claims that chronic dehydration is a principal cause behind indigestion, hiatus hernia, arthritis, headaches, depression and high blood pressure, among other conditions. Many research studies have borne this idea out. A study presented at the European Society of Cardiology in Vienna in 1998 revealed that in a population of more than 30,000 men and women, the ones who drank more than 5 glasses of water per day had a dramatic reduction in the incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes. We have installed a distillation system for the drinking water at our clinic and during your chelation treatments we will serve you water and encourage you to drink all you can while you are in the office and at home. Remember that the toxic metals we are chelating leave the body through the kidney system so extra water will hasten the flushing of these poisons out of your body. For your good health please drink at least 6 glasses (12 oz.) of water every day. You will notice a difference if you do this consistently for a number of weeks. Water consumption is probably the most neglected area of health. Water is the basis of life on this planet and approximately 70% of our body weight consists of water. It is literally the medium in which our bio-molecules live and our tissues and organs cannot be healthy without proper water balance. We recommend you try to drink a large glass of pure water every time you think you need a cigarette, a cup of coffee, a soda pop or other sweet or alcoholic beverage. When I say "pure" water, I mean to imply that unless you have a good reverse osmosis filter or distilling apparatus connected to your water supply, you probably don't have pure water. Distilled water is "hungry" water — it will flush out impurities from our body. Clean Artesian or spring water is also fine as long as you can document its purity. NOTE: The notable exception to this advice occurs in patients who have been given a fluid restriction by their doctor because of severe congestive heart failure. These cases are dealt with individually by Dr. Waters. [ The scientific method to determine if you are consuming enough water is very simple and involves the use of a Specific Conductance Meter. An inexpensive meter can be obtained and used to test the solids content of your urine. If the meter reads above 12,000 microsiemens — the value of our blood — you need to be drinking more water.] It is the combination of dietary changes, nutritional supplements, regular exercise, stress reduction, and intravenous E.D.T.A. Chelation Therapy, which leads to improved health. It is important for you to be committed to all aspects of the program to insure maximum probability of success.
      What Can I Expect?
      Most doctors who give Chelation Therapy report that at least 75% of the patients experience definite improvements in their symptoms. These improvements include increased exercise tolerance, reduction in chest pain, improved vision, reduced joint pains, and better memory. The other 25% of the patients usually also report some positive changes but these might not be so dramatic. In addition, there is often a delay in the improvements of 3 to 6 months. Indeed one Chelation therapist has shown that improvement in circulation to the lower extremities could not be proven with Doppler studies after 30 treatments but when these studies were repeated 6 months after the 30th treatment, a marked improvement in blood flow was shown. We don't know why there is a delay in results in some cases, but believe that the Chelation Therapy may "set into motion" certain biological effects, which then continue after the Chelation Therapy has stopped. In this regard, experimental evidence from animal studies has shown that bone-forming cells begin to increase their activity leading to a net increase in bone density after a series of E.D.T.A. Chelation treatments.14 This effect continues even after the E.D.T.A. infusions have ceased. Some patients have noted improvements after as few as two treatments, while others haven't seen results until 20 or more treatments. Very severe or long-standing conditions often take longer to respond to Chelation. Again, we can't emphasize too strongly: THE MORE CLOSELY YOU FOLLOW DIET, EXERCISE, SUPPLEMENT, AND LIFESTYLE RECOMMENDATIONS, THE MORE LIKELY AND SOONER YOU WILL OBTAIN POSITIVE RESULTS. If you can't stop the cigarette habit, you should not waste your time and money on Chelation Therapy. You will probably be disappointed.
      What Tests Will I Need To Start Chelation?
      The pre-chelation evaluation includes the following tests: (an explanation follows each in order that the patients may learn the purpose of the laboratory testing). C.B.C. The complete blood count and the differential count tells the doctor whether you are anemic or not, or in some cases if you have too many red blood corpuscles. In addition to measuring the amount of blood, it also gives the average size of the red blood corpuscles and other parameters, which indicate the possibility of deficiencies of copper, iron, B-12, and folic acid. A white blood count is also performed in this test and gives us a view of your immune status and the possibility of infections. The various types of white blood corpuscles and their relative numbers are measured and this information helps in the diagnosis of immune deficiency, allergy, and the presence and type of infections. ChemScreen This group of 25 tests tells us your blood sugar level, the level of important electrical conductors in the blood stream (sodium, potassium, chlorides), kidney function, liver function tests, level of uric acid which may be important in the diagnosis of arthritis, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels as well as the levels of the HDL and LDL fractions of cholesterol. This gives us a determination of the relative risk of cardiovascular diseases. The liver function tests within this profile also may indicate a deficiency problem with respect to vitamin B-6. This profile also gives us a serum iron level and gives us levels of the two common proteins in the blood stream: albumin and globulin. The level of calcium and magnesium in the serum is also determined. The results of this panel tell us whether a patient can safely undergo Chelation Therapy. They also serve to monitor important body functions during the course of treatment. Thyroid Profile In this test the level of thyroid hormones in the blood stream is evaluated. Low levels can indicate a hypo-metabolic state which can lead to weight gain, shortage of energy, and depression. High levels may cause nervousness and weight loss. Glycohemoglobin this test determines whether you have a tendency towards diabetes or hypoglycemia. In conjunction with the fasting blood sugar level, these two tests in correlation with your symptoms have been found to eliminate the need in most cases for glucose tolerance tests. Ferritin Level This laboratory evaluation represents the definitive test for iron status in the human body. Higher than normal levels of ferritin are indicative of iron overload, which has been shown to cause various glandular disorders as well as contributing to arteriosclerosis and possibly cancer. Low levels of ferritin are the hallmark of iron deficiency. Patients with high levels of ferritin frequently benefit from Chelation Therapy. Urinalysis: — This test gives us an indication of the presence or absence of infection in the urinary system as well as the levels of important molecules such as sugar, protein, and bile. The test will also reveal damage to the kidneys themselves. The presence of blood in the urine always necessitates follow-up in reference to the possibility of tumors of the urinary tract. The concentration of the urine helps to determine not only kidney function, but also the presence of relative hydration in the individual. The urine analysis represents a broad-spectrum look at a number of body systems and may point the way for more definitive testing.
      Heavy Metal Screening: — This test uses hair tissue to determine the level of toxic elements in the body such as lead, cadmium, mercury, aluminum and nickel. While hair analysis cannot be used to diagnose medical conditions with certainty, it is a very important screening test for the presence of excess heavy metals in the body. In addition, some of the essential elements measured in the hair may he reflective of total body content of these elements. Copper in particular may reveal an excess body burden, which may be occurring as a result of an ingestion through contaminated water supply.   The treatment for heavy metal intoxication is Chelation Therapy.
      A Careful Look At Heavy Metal Intoxication
      by Jann M. Gentry-Glander
      In conjunction with Odyssey Clinical Studies
      and David H. Saxon, MD

      Blood Mineral Panel Levels of the essential elements such as magnesium, potassium, zinc, and manganese are measured in the whole blood to determine deficiency or excess of these elements and thereby guide in the prescription of nutritional supplements. Whole blood may give a better reflection of essential metal content in the human body than the hair analysis does. There is some evidence that other metals included in this panel such as selenium and copper, may also contribute to whether you will be advised to supplement these metals or avoid them in your nutritional supplements. After all of your lab data are gathered, Dr. Waters will explain the findings to you and a nutritional supplement program will be prescribed. Follow-up lab tests will be done to assess your progress and assure safety of the procedure. Besides the chemistry tests that we do, we ask that you send any cardiovascular tests done by doctors or hospitals to us. These would include Doppler Ultrasound exams of the blood vessels in the neck and lower limbs, EKG's, Treadmill/stress tests, Echocardiograms and reports of hospitalizations, angiograms and operations. Ask the receptionist for record releases to obtain these records for your file.
      What Do I Do On The Day Of Treatment?
      Be sure to eat a good meal before coming for treatment. If you are going to have laboratory work on the same day, you must fast for 16 hours. After your blood is drawn you will be sent out for breakfast and then return for treatment. Feel free to bring reading material or audiotapes with you for use during your treatment. We can also provide you with a variety of tapes, books, etc. It is a good policy to bring a friend or relative to your first one or two treatments in case you feel weak or dizzy afterwards. Such side effects generally disappear after a few treatments and you should have no problem driving home or taking public transportation. You should take all medications as directed on the day of Chelation as you would any other day. Only after we have a chance to assess your progress, do we consider reducing your medication. In most cases, it is appropriate for you to continue seeing your family doctor or cardiologist.
      DOs  and  DON'Ts
        — DOs — DO drink plenty of water every day, especially the days of Chelation. We provide the best water you can drink to cleanse your system of poisons — distilled water! DO wear loose fitting clothing. No restrictive sleeves. DO eat a big meal before Chelation therapy. DO bring healthy snacks such as meat, vegetables, or fruit to eat during Chelation therapy. DO practice deep breathing exercises daily. Close your eyes, sit quietly and inhale slowly until your lungs are filled. Stop for a moment and then exhale completely. This will bring much needed oxygen to your cells to revitalize them.
        — DON'Ts — DON'T drink any caffeinated beverages the day of treatment. Caffeine dehydrates your body, constricts your veins and makes it more difficult to start your I.V. DON'T drink milk before or after your treatments. DON'T take supplements containing minerals before your treatments. DON'T cross your legs during treatment because it cuts off the circulation to your feet and toes. DON'T bring junk food to the clinic to eat during Chelation. These include soda pop, cookies, candy, chips, white bread, crackers, etc. If you don't know if something is junk, ask! DON'T wear perfumes, cologne, or other strongly scented cosmetics the day of treatment. Many people are allergic to strong odors and will feel sick if they are exposed to them.

      Will Insurance Companies Pay For Chelation Therapy?
      In most cases they won't. Medicare definitely will not pay. Many companies will, however, pay for your office visits and laboratory work and we are getting increasing reports of insurance companies reimbursing for this treatment. In Ohio a court ruled that Aetna Insurance must reimburse one of its insured for their Chelation treatment. Hopefully, this decision and others will gradually force carriers to cover Chelation services. At any rate, we expect to be paid for all services as they are rendered; you will be issued a super-bill to submit to your insurance company. It is important that you undertake your Chelation program with the assumption that insurance probably will not cover it and view the expense as an investment in your good health.
      Chelation Therapy with E.D.T.A. is a relatively new treatment for many of the diseases of aging. It has been documented to be safe and effective in numerous studies done around the world over the past 40 years. When used in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, improved diet and increased exercise most patients can expect improvement in medical conditions caused by circulatory impairment.
      1) Studies at University of California. Papers read at American Heart Association Meeting. Washington D.C., 1988 2) Williams, D.R., (Ed), An introduction to Bio-inorganic Chemistry. Charles Thomas Publishers, Springfield, Illinois. 1976 3) Halstead, B.W., The Scientific Basis of EDTA Chelation Therapy. Golden Quill Publisher, Inc., Loma Linda, California. 1979 (Update available through ACAM) 4) Clarke, Sr., N.E., "Arteriosclerosis, Occlusive Vascular Disease and EDTA." American Journal of Cardiology, August 1960 (VI #2), P. 233-236. 5) Boyle, A.J., Clarke, N.E., Mosher, R.E., and McCann, D.S. "Chelation Therapy in Circulatory and Sclerosing Diseases". Federation Proceedings, September 1961 (20 #3 Part II Supp. #10) P. 243-251. 6) Clarke, N.E., Clarke, C.N., Mosher, R.E., "Treatment of Angina Pectoris with Disodium Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid", American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 1955 (22), P. 142-149. 7) Clarke, N.E., Clarke, C.N., Mosher, R.E., "The 'In Vivo' Dissolution of Metastatic Calcium. An Approach to Arteriosclerosis". American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 1955 (22), P. 142-149. 8) Foreman, H., "Use of Chelating Agents in Treatment of Metal Poisoning (with special emphasis on lead)". Federation Proceedings, September 1961 (20 #3 Part II Supp. #10) P. 191-196. 9) Brieger, H., "The Use of Chelating Agents in Occupational Medicine", Metal-Binding in Medicine: 132. Seven, M.J. (Ed), 1960, J.B. Lippincott Philadelphia. P 200-204. 10) Nodine, J., "Wdetic Acid Therapy", Journal of the American Medical Association, April 27, 1970 (212 #4) P. 628. 11) Breecher, Arlene, Forty Something Forever. Medex Press, P.O. Box 683, Herndon, Virginia. 12) Walker, M. Chelation Therapy. 1976 Press, Seal Beach, California. 1980. 13) Gordon, G. and Walker, M., The Chelation Answer, M. Evans and Company, Inc. NY, New York. 1982. 14) Raymond, J.P. et al. "Effects of EDTA and HYPOCALCEMIA on Plasma Prolactin, PTH and Calcitonin in Normal and Parathyroidectomized Individuals". Francis and Anthony D'Anna International Symposium, Clinical Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. Henry Ford Hospital. Dearborn, Michigan. May 8, 1983. 15) Meltzer, L.E., Ural, E., Kitchell, J.R., "The Treatment of Coronary Artery Heart Disease with Disodium EDTA", Metal Binding in Medicine, 132, Seven, J.J. (Ed), 1960, J.B. Lippincott. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, P. 43-47. 16) Lamar, C.P., "Chelation Endarterectomy for Occlusive Arteriosclerosis". Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1966 (XIV #3), P. 272-294. 17) Lamar, C.P. "Chelation Therapy of Occlusive Arteriosclerosis in Diabetic Patients", Angiology, 7964 (15), P. 379-394. 18) Lamar, C.P., "Calcium Chelation in Arteriosclerosis, Nine Years Clinical Experience", 74th Annual Meeting of American College of Angiology, San Juan, 1968. 19) Blumer, Walter, M.D. and Cranton, Elmer, M.D., "Ninety Percent Reduction in Cancer Mortality After Chelation Therapy with EDTA". Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 2: Number 1/2, P. 183-188. Spring/Summer, 1989 20) Olwin, J.H., Koppel, J.L., "Reduction of Elevated Plasma Lipid Levels in Arteriosclerosis Following EDTA Therapy", Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine Proceedings, 1968 (128 #3-4). P. 1137-l 140. 21) Jick, S., Karsh, R., "The Effect of Calcium Chelation on Cardiac Arrhythmias and Conduction Disturbances", The American Journal of Cardiology, September 1959, P. 287-293. 22) Kitchell, J.R., Palmon, F. Jr., Aytan, N., Meltzer, L.E., "The Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease with Disodium EDTA, A Reappraisal", The American Journal of Cardiology, April 1963, P. 501-506. 23) Casdorph, H.R., "EDTA Chelation Therapy, Efficacy in Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease". Journal of Holistic Medicine 3:53-59. 1981. 24) Casdorph, H.R. "EDTA Chelation Therapy II, Efficacy in Brain Disorders", Journal of Holistic Medicine. 3: 1 01 -117.1981. 25) McDonagh, E.W., Rudolph, C.J., Cheraskin, E., "An Oculocerebrovasculometric Analysis of the Improvement in Arterial Stenosis following DETA Chelation Therapy". Journal of Holistic Medicine, 4:21-23. 1982. 26) McDonagh, E.W., Rudolph, C.J., Cheraskin, E., "The Effect of EDTA Chelation Therapy Pius Supportive Multivitamin - Trace Mineral Supplementation Upon Renal Function: A Study in Serum Creatinine". Journal of Holistic Medicine, 4:146-1 51. 1982. 27) McDonagh, E.W., Rudolph, C.J., Cheraskin, E., "The Effect of EDTA Chelation Therapy Plus Supportive Multivitamin Trace Mineral Supplementation Upon Renal Function: A Study in Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)", Journal of Holistic Medicine, 5163-l 71. 1983. 28) Casdorph, H.R., Farr, C.H., "EDTA Chelation Therapy III: Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Occlusion, an Alternative to Amputation". Journal of Holistic Medicine, 5:3-1 5. 1983. 29) McDonagh, E.W. et al. "Effect of EDTA Chelation Therapy Plus Multivitamin Trace Mineral Supplementation Upon Vascular Dynamics: Ankle/Brachial Doppler Systolic Blood Pressure Ratio". Journal of Holistic Medicine. 7:16-22. 1985. 30) Rubin, M., et al (Eds) "Proceedings of the III International Chelation Conference". Georgetown University, Washington D.C. July 19-22, 1989. 31) Deucher, G.P., "Heavy Metals. Chelation Therapy, Free Radicals and Human Diseases". Angiologie, (63): 1776, Oct. 1987. 32) Bederka, J.P., Luekken, T.M., Brudno, S., Waters, R. S., "Elemental Balances in the Human", Trace Subst. Environmental Health, 19, 304-l 3, 1985. 33) Day vs. Aetna Life Insurance Company (87CV12710, Elyria Municipal Court, Lorain County, Ohio). (Copies of Judgment Entry are available from CANAH, P.O. Box B-12, Richlandtown, PA 18955). 34) Olszewer, Efrain, MD, Carter, James S., MD, DrPH. "EDTA Chelation Therapy: A Retrospective Study of 2,870 Patients". Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 2: Number 1/2, 197-211, Spring/Summer 1989. 35) Rudolph, C.J. DO, PhD, McDonagh, E.W. DO, Barber, R.K., BS. "A Nonsurgical Approach to Obstructive Carotid Stenosis Using EDTA Chelation". Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 4: Number 3, 157-l 66. Fall 1991. 36) Hancke, C., MD and Flytlie, K., MD, "Benefit of EDTA Chelation Therapy in Arteriosclerosis: A Retrospective Study of 470 Patients". Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 6: Number 3, 161-l 71. Fall 1993. 37) Rudolph, C.J., DO, PhD. Samuels, R.T., OD, McDonagh, E.W., Do. "Visual Field Evidence of Macular Degeneration Reversal Using a Combination of EDTA Chelation and Multiple Vitamin and Trace Mineral Therapy", Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 7: Number 4, 203-212. Winter 1994. 38) Van Rij, A.M. et al. "Chelation Therapy for Intermittent Claridication: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial". Circulation 90. 1194-l 199. 1994. 39) Holliday, J.H., MD, "Carotid Restenosis: A Case for EDTA Chelation", Journal of Advancement in Medicine. Vol. 9: Number 2. 95-99. Summer 1996. 40) Ali, Majid, MD, et al. "Improved Myocardial Perfusion in Patients with Advanced lschemic Heart Disease with an Integrative Management Program, Including EDTA Chelation Therapy". Journal of Integrative Medicine. Vol. 1: Number 1. 113-l 45. Winter 1997. 41) Anderson, Richard A., PhD, Bryden, Noella A. and Waters, Robert S., MD. "EDTA Chelation Therapy Does Not Selectively Increase Chromium Losses". Biological Trace Element Research. Vol. 70. 265-272. 1999. 42) Eaton, S.B., Eaton III, S.B., et al. "An Evolutionary Perspective Enhanced Understanding of Human Nutritional Requirements". Journal of Nutrition, 126. 1232-40. June 1996. 43) Eaton, S.B., Shostak, M. et al. "The Paleolithic Prescription: A Program of Diet and Exercise and a Design for Living: 39. New York: Harder and Row, 1988. 44) Enig, M. "Trans Fatty Acids in the Food Supply: A Comprehensive Report Covering 60 Years of Research", 2nd Edition. Enig Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland. 1995. 45) Rudolph, C.J. and McDonagh, E.W. "Renal Artery Stenosis Reversal on a Hypertensive Individual". Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 12: Number 3. 193-200. Fall 1999. 46) Batmanghelidj, F. MD, "Your Body's Many Cries for Water", Global Health Solutions, Inc., Falls Church, VA. Telephone: (703) 848-2333. 1995. 47) Waters, R.S., Bryden, N.A., Patterson, K.Y., Veillon, C., and Anderson, R.A. "EDTA Chelation Effects on Urinary Losses of Cadmium, Calcium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Magnesium and Zinc". Biological Trace Element Research. Vol. 48,207-221. 2001.
        For printed copies of this booklet contact: Waters Preventive Medical Center, Ltd.
        320 Race St., P.O. Box 357
        Wisconsin Dells, WI 53965
        Fax: 608-253-7139